Julián Valdés Sierra
The black Cuban who fought with Antonio Maceo in the War of Independence was disturbed about how his colleague Afro-Cubans were being treated since the end of the war.
Sierra joined the Partido Independiente de Color as a founding member. In 1910, he created the black cartoon character José Rosario, which he used to symbolize Cuban history and to explain his thoughts of race relations in Cuba.
Sierra was arrested on April 22, 1910, with other leaders of the Independent Party of Colour and charged with “illicit association and conspiracy” to foment an armed revolution.
While some of the leaders of the party were prosecuted, Sierra received a verdict of Not Guilty in December 1910.