The most extreme naysayers believe the political and philosophical goal of Pan-Africanism was doomed from birth.
The argument goes that for a continent whose people’s modern sense of identity is basically the creation of colonizers, to break out of that husk is next to impossible.
To exemplify their points, these critics point to border disputes, a heritage of colonialism. Some of these disputes have blown into full-on wars on the continent.
But border disputes are not the only cause of violent tensions among African countries. Half a century since the so-called Decade of Independence, finding platforms for community has not been without struggle for Africans.
As follows are five historic and violent feuds that broke out between African countries over political and other reasons.