Mungiki – Kenya
Though Mungiki means a cohesive people in the Kikuyu language, it was developed as a mystified religion – meaning it’s fused with a number of religions which aren’t widely discussed. It began in the 1980s to combat disputes over land and has now evolved into a street gang in the slums of Nairobi, Kenya. The members of this gang profit off of the misfortunes of the members of their neighborhoods in that, they require them to pay a fee for protection against theft and violence. They also charge neighborhood members a fee for using public toilets.