Before the modern establishment of the rich culture of tribes throughout the continent, pre-colonial African empires such as the Kush Kingdom, the Kingdom of Aksum and the Mali Empire controlled their own lands and held vast resources that protected and sustained all inhabitants.
Their success was based on armies that protected their territories and conquered others in a bid to expand their thriving kingdoms.
Colonialism drastically changed the African dynamic as it disbanded families, landmarks, resources, as well as kingdoms using religion, guns and slavery as a tool. The period also saw the decline of these armies, some of which were known for their brutal strength, impressive strategies and influential power.
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Here are four pre-colonial African armies that couldn’t be cracked for centuries: