Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela was a South African anti-apartheid revolutionary, political leader, and philanthropist. He also served as the first black president of South Africa.
On July 11, 1963, the police raided Liliesleaf Farm in Rivonia, Johannesburg which was the hideout of some key African National Congress members taking with them supposed evidence of plans by Mandela and others to sabotage and lead a violent revolution against the apartheid government. Keep in mind that Mandela was already serving a five-year jail term on charges of leaving South Africa without permission and also instigating workers to go on strike.
Though the Rivonia Trial, which took place between October 9, 1963, and June 12, 1964, was strongly condemned by recognized international organizations including the United Nations and the World Peace Council, it still proceeded and eventually found Mandela together with the other accused guilty.
Mandela was sentenced to life imprisonment. He was released in 1990 and he became the first black president of South Africa.